China’s BRI Geopolitical Maritime Investments in the European Union’s Shipping Industry, European Union’s Reaction and Implications for South-South Relations

China is purchasing stakes in strategic ports across the European Union with varying dynamics observable in each deal including its latest purchase at Germany’s Hamburg harbor. China Ocean Shipping Company (COSCO) which is one of the world’s largest shipping companies has also purchased shares in sea ports in: Belgium, Spain, Italy, Netherlands and Greece. These maritime investments are in line with Chinese President Xi Jinping’s 2013 proposition to invest in a 21st century Maritime Silk Road which is a part of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).

Electricity pylons at the Rawalpindi market, Pakistan 2022.

Pakistan-China BRI-CPEC Relations: The Impact and Challenges of Electricity Production, Transmission and Distribution in Pakistan for Chinese Companies

Pakistan desperately needed investments in its energy sector because constant electricity blackouts and load shedding were gradually crippling its economy. The 2015 launch of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) which is part of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) brought hope to 236 million Pakistanis who make up the world’s fifth largest nation by population. Chinese companies increased electricity production through many new power production projects.